Sample Term Paper
This term paper discusses cognitive development. According to Kershener, the visual perceptual instruction makes sense in the preoperational period, however, in the operational period spatial skills training make more sense. Moreover, a training based on symbolic and logical skills is more favorable.
Kershner, (1975) states in his article that in contrast to the existing and prevalent theories, undue importance is given to visual perception and perceptual motor training, however according to him newer research shows that even though children lacking these qualities may be hindered initially but by age 11 are not experiencing any problems. Training children in perceptual motor skills was more helpful than using more direct methods.
This shows that visual perceptual training may be important in the earlier years, however in later years it may not be very necessary. Therefore according to Kershener, the visual perceptual instruction makes sense in the preoperational period, however, in the operational period spatial skills training make more sense. Moreover, a training based on symbolic and logical skills is more favorable.
His research tries to ask whether the spatial ability is related to reading then to perceptual ability, whether children with low visual perceptual skill can read satisfactorily, to highlight whether perceptual abilities or visual-spatial abilities contribute more. The results show that grade 2 children with good perceptual and spatial skills do better then other children, but the results also show that visual-spatial skills are more associated with reading skills then perceptual skills. Thus according to the author, the perceptual skills should not be emphasized and in the case of children with learning disabilities, more emphasis should be put on the visual-spatial skills.
The first article, (Wachs, 1981) is more of a review of the ideas and the philosophy of Piaget, with reference to education. Instead of evaluating Piaget’s theory, the author simply presents it and then in the conclusion gives a sketchy idea of a research conducted by himself. I my view he should have given a more detailed version of what methodology was employed and how successful it was, to reiterate the points made by Piaget.
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