Sample Research Paper
This research paper discusses Darwin’s theory of natural selection. The knowledge hypothesis of Thorndike represents the original outline of behavioral psychology: Learning is the consequence of associations forming between stimuli and responses.
The knowledge hypothesis of Thorndike represents the original outline of behavioral psychology: Learning is the consequence of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such links or “habits” become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. The pattern for the theory was trial and error learning in which positive responses come to dominate others due to rewards. The hallmark of connectionism was that wisdom could be adequately explained without referring to any unobservable internal states. What Thorndike found was that learning advance by trial and error. Learning is a gradual process. This was the idea, which was opposed to the Darwinian principle, which did not take into account the impact of environment on the human population, whereas Thorndike was a precursor to serious behaviorists and totally ruled out the impact of genetic framework or the hereditary influence on the learning skills.
Johannes Muller, propagate the “law of specific nerve energies”. This states that we are aware not of objects themselves but of signals about them convey through our nerves, and that there are different kinds of nerves, each nerve having its own “specific nerve energy”. In particular, Muller takes on the five primary senses that Aristotle had documented: seeing, hearing, smells, touch, taste. The exact nerve energy, according to Muller, symbolized the sensory modality that each type of nerve transmitted. The first of these principles was that the mind is straight aware not of objects in the physical world but of states of the nervous system. The nervous system, in other words, works as an intermediary between the world and the mind and thus oblige its own nature on mental processes. The second was that the qualities of the sensory nerves of which the mind obtain knowledge in sensation are specific to the various senses, the nerve of vision being usually as insensible to sound as the nerve of audition is to light.
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