Sample Term Paper

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This term paper is on modernization. Before the Tanzimat, the Ottomans were thought to characterize the antithesis of what had been achieved to protect and support the rights of the individual in absolutist states in the West.

Before the Tanzimat, the Ottomans were thought to characterize the antithesis of what had been achieved to protect and support the rights of the individual in absolutist states in the West. The Ottomans were hardly credited with respect to the following rights and liberties: the right to life; immunity from arbitrary actions by the state; independence of the judiciary; prohibition of torture; freedom of expression; the right to privacy; freedom to travel, however this perception changed with the sweeping reforms that took place in the nineteenth century.

The drive for Ottoman modernization is commonly associated with the Tanzimat period (1839-76) despite earlier attempts at technical and administrative reform in the military sphere. The decline of the empire, signaled by two centuries of military defeat and territorial retreat, called for more radical and comprehensive measures. Tanzimat was officially announced on 3rd November 1839, as in the case of the Commercial Treaty of 1838 that opened up the gigantic Ottoman market to British manufactures by lifting trade restrictions and tariff walls. The Tanzimat edict, penned by Resit Pasha but supported and approved by the British, set the scene for widespread reforms with far-reaching consequences in the fields of administration, legislation and education.

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