This essay is about Objects Relation Theory. The object-relation school objects to the excessive emphasis on instincts in classical Freudian theory. Fairbairn (1954, 1963) summarized his object relations theory as follows:
The object-relation school objects to the excessive emphasis on instincts in classical Freudian theory. Fairbairn (1954, 1963) summarized his object relations theory as follows: 1) an ego is present from birth. 2) Libido is a function of the ego. 3) There is no death instinct, and aggression is a reaction to frustration or deprivation. 4) There is no such thing as an id. 5) The ego, and therefore libido, is fundamentally object-seeking. 6) The earliest and original form of anxiety, as experienced by the child, is separation anxiety. 7) Internalization of the object is a defensive measure adopted by the child to deal with his original object insofar as the object is unsatisfying. 8) Internalization of the object is not just a product of a fantasy of incorporating the object orally. 9) The exciting and frustrating aspects of the internalized object are split off from the main core of the object and repressed by the ego. 10) Thus, there come to be two repressed internal objects, the exciting or libidinal object and the rejecting or antilibidinal object. 11) The main core of the internalized object is described as the ideal object or ego-ideal. 12) Both the exciting and rejecting objects are cathected by the original ego and these objects carry into repression part of the ego leaving the central ego unrepressed but acting as the agent of repression. 13) The resulting internal situation is one in which three egos exist. 14) This internal situation represents a fundamental schizoid position. 15) The antilibidinal ego adopts an uncompromisingly hostile toward the libidinal ego. 16) What Freud described as the superego is a complex structure comprising the ideal object or ego-ideal, the antilibidinal ego and the rejecting or antilibidinal object. 17) These considerations form the basis of a theory of personality conceived in terms of object-relations rather than Freud’s theory of instincts and their vicissitudes (Fairbairn, 1954 & 1963).
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